Microfinishing Yesterday-Today and Tomorrow from Micron to Nano and Ångström
Space as an Example for Proportions in Size
In space, the sun and the moon are well perceptible by their size. The stars are just luminous dots. But the infinite space still hides an indefinable amount of stars and systems.
We are just at the threshold of infinite space. Technique and research respectively continue requesting precision up to the Ångström (see chart, picture 11).
The proportions in size of the techniques already reached and still to be reached are represented impressively in picture 10.
We will face up to the requirements. Only the lapping and polishing technique can go on this journey ….. we are highly motivated. Good luck on your journey, travel with us.
Nano-objects : 1 nm = 10 to the-9 power m = 0,001µm = 10 Å Nanos = dwarf (Greek)
0,25 nm : Metal atoms (Cu, Ni, Fe, Ta)
0,5 nm to 1 nm : small molecules, fullerenes (C60 -“football- molecule”)
1 nm to 10 nm: nanocrystals, molecules, nanospheres of face-creams and metallic paints, the thickness of single layers of multi-layers for radio optical components, the width of the DNA helix (approx. 2.5 nm), the width of transistor gates
10 nm to 100 nm: macromolecules, the thickness of foliated gold (approx. 100 nm), lower physical limit of conventional photolithography (100 nm)
100 nm to 1’000 nm: shortest wavelengths of laser light (192 nm), the spectral range of visible light (350 nm to 750 nm), coating of architectural and spectacle glasses, structural sizes of 256 MBit-Chip (approx. 250 nm), the thickness of an iridescent oil film or a soap bubble, smallest dust particle, minimum structural width of saleable electronic components (approx. 500 nm), lower object limit for light microscopes (approx. 500 nm)
1’000 nm to 10’000 nm : bacteria, red blood-corpuscles, distance of the grooves of CD’s (approx. 1’500 nm), thickness of single nervous tracts, hard material layers (TiN, WC), thick decorative coating
10’000 nm to 100’000 nm: thickness of kitchen aluminum foil (10 to 15 microns), hair (ca. 50µm), sub-fractional micro motors (pumps, valves; electro motors) (100µm to 200µm)